Formerly an uninspired, unmaintained plaza built in 1980 over the roof of the river-water cooling plant of the original World Trade Center buildings, the renovations solved operational problems and provided additional amenities for the residents and the local community. The reclaimed community space includes a shaded space, a play area for younger children, and a dog run. Kowsky Plaza provides an armature for spontaneous activity. The space was redesigned to allow public access directly from the axis of Liberty to the lower esplanade with a cantilevered shade structure that reflects the lack of “solid ground.” The redesign of Kowsky Plaza was a technically challenging project because the paving surface and roof had greatly deteriorated from settling. Kowsky Plaza was opened to the public in spring 2005.