Under the English, New Amsterdam was renamed New York, after the Duke of York, brother to King Charles II. Fort Amsterdam, located at the foot of Broadway, was renamed Fort James. The fort and environs became the center of political and social life in the new colony, and it is not surprising that the first meeting to protest the 1765 Stamp Act took place at Burn`s Coffee House on Broadway opposite Bowling Green.Stamp Act Riot was the 1st organized skirmish against the British. The 1st Congressional Congress met during October to devise a formal response called the Stamp Act Congress.In response to the Stamp Act, the Sons of Liberty formed as one of the earliest patriot groups. Their motto "no taxation without representation". New York members included Hercules Mulligan, John Lamb, Haym Solomon, Isaac Sears, and Marinus Willet. Also, the Non-Importation Agreement was passed, whereby, colonists refused to pay back debts to the British traders and boycotted all British goods.

Battle, 1765